Abstract: One hundred fifty years after Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, the question of evolution is still hotly debated. This article discusses critically the three most prominent positions in this debate, regarding both evolution and cosmogony: Creationism, intelligent design and their common foe, and Darwinism. On the one hand, it rejects the claim of creationism and intelligent design to scientific status, since God, on principle, cannot be an element within a scientific explanation. But, on the other hand, while accepting evolution as a fact beyond reasonable doubt, it points out the glaring gaps in the scientific explanation both of evolution and cosmogony. In conclusion, the article firmly affirms the postulate of natural sciences that all processes in nature must have natural causes which, therefore, sciences have to look for. But it criticizes the sciences for not openly acknowledging the extreme, in fact incomprehensible improbability of the astonishing development of our universe and of life and humans on earth. Faith in God does not put God into the gaps of scientific explanation, but makes the believer see behind scientific improbability the wisdom of creation.
Keywords: Causa prima (the first cause), causae secundae (the second causes), Darwinisme (Darwinism), evolusi (evolution), fine tuning, God of gaps, intelligent design, irreducible complexity, kosmogoni (cosmogony), multivers.
Pencerahan Di Mata Kant dan Nietzsche:
A. Setyo Wibowo*
Abstract: Pushed by the enthousiasm of Enlightenment, in his article “What is Enlightenment,” Kant tries to encourage his contemporaries to pass beyond the age of minority. For him, Enlightenment means adult age. On the contrary, the skepticism of Nietzsche to anything which has to do with reason or Enlightenment is wellknown. But, beyond the opposition between Nietzsche and the philosopher of Königsberg, this article tries to indicate where these two philosophers propose something similar, e.g., the courage to deal with reality. This will define what we means by maturity. Being “enlightened” requests not only a biological growth but, primarily, a sharp consciousness in dealing with reality.
Keywords: Pencerahan (Enlightenment), keberanian (courage), rasio (reason), kehendak (will).
Abstract: All human civilizations, whether theistic, materialistic, naturalistic, idealistic, fascistic or Marxist oriented, always have a worldview as an infrastructure from which points of view can be developed. According to Ali Syari’ati, a worldview is a person’s perspective about existence. One’s worldview is influenced by specific spiritual and material aspects of one’s community. A person’s worldview influences one’s choice to take actions. Ali Syari’ati offers a religious humanistic worldview reflecting monotheism as a source of awareness, morality, responsibility, and free will, which can influence his followers to gain power to free themselves from the determination of the oppressive ideologies of multitheism. The concept of tauhid (monotheism) is a starting point for awareness and freedom to create life structures, which respect justice and dignity.
Keywords: Pandangan tentang dunia (worldview), tauhid (monotheism), religius humanistik (religious humanistic), kesadaran (awareness), multitheism.
Abstract: Social conflict is an inevitable fact in our society marked by antagonistic relationship between the oppressed and the oppressor, between the working class and the capitalist. In this context, the class struggle is needed to create justice and egalitarian brotherhood. Class struggle must be guided by ethical and juridical consideration and must lead to the common good. In the Christian perspective, it does not implies a violent and brutal method for creating justice. Class struggle may not justify all means, including a physical revolution to put an end to an unjust and oppressive situation. Therefore, the class struggle understood as a moral imperative to struggle for justice and liberation is compatible with Christian demand to love neighbours, including enemies. Authentic love must be based on justice so the powerless are not sacrificed and so that finally they can enjoy equal rights. Furthermore, the ideal of Christian brotherhood and the unity of the Church may not be used for maintaining a “fictitious and false harmony”1 and obscuring demand for conversion and transformation. The honest acknowledgement of social conflict is not a negation of the unifying and liberating message of the Gospel; instead it reveals the actual challenge that must be overcome in the light of the universal principle of love.
Keywords: Class struggle, social conflict, violence, poverty, struggle for justice, reconciliation, universal love, the common good.